Oral Presentation First Malaria World Congress 2018

The threat of insecticide resistance for malaria control and elimination (#135)

Melinda P Hadi 1 , Duncan K Athinya 1 , Seline A Omondi 2 , Eric O Ochomo 2 , Helen Pates Jamet 3
  1. Vestergaard, Nairobi, Kenya
  2. Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya
  3. Vestergaard, Washington , DC, USA

The decrease in malaria cases between the year 2000 and 2015 has largely been attributed to vector control using long lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying. However, in 2016 the number of malaria cases worldwide increased compared to 2015. Insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is one of the challenges recognized by WHO for global malaria elimination. The decreased ability of current vector control tools to effectively kill mosquitoes may be an early indicator to an increase in malaria cases and attributed deaths. Visualizing the confirmed reports of insecticide resistance in malaria endemic countries provides an indication where resistance may play a role in the persisting malaria burden. Launched in 2012, IR Mapper (www.irmapper.com) geospatially displays reports of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. In 2016, it was expanded to include insecticide resistance data on vector of arboviral disease,  Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. As of March 2018, the Anopheles IR Mapper platform consisted of over 19,500 unique data points from 2,664 localities in 60 countries. 85% of the countries reported confirmed resistance to at least one of the four main insecticide classes for malaria vector control. Among the 15 countries contributing 80% of the global malaria burden in 2016, confirmed resistance to pyrethroids was widely reported in all 15 countries. Confirmed resistance to carbamates was also reported in 14 of the 15 countries. Target site knockdown mutations (kdr) and over expressed oxidase metabolic mechanisms were the main resistance mechanisms reported in these countries. IR Mapper is a useful tool for visualizing the spatiotemporal spread of insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes and can be used to assist in decision making for deployment of the most appropriate tools and development of insecticide resistance strategies.